What is melanoma?
Melanoma is a form of cancer that begins in melanocytes, which
are specialized cells in the skin that produce the brown pigment known as
melanin. These are the cells that darken when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) rays,
a protective response to shield the deeper layers of the skin from the harmful
effects of the sun. Melanoma occurs when the body cannot repair damage to the melanocytes'
DNA, allowing the cells to divide and grow uncontrollably. DNA damage in
melanocytes may be linked to a variety of factors, including genetics and skin
type. But most cases of melanoma are caused by overexposure to UV light
produced by the sun or tanning beds.
Melanoma may appear as a dark spot or
wound that does not heal, or one that grows, changes shape or bleeds. Unlike
other skin cancers, melanoma may develop on parts of the body not usually
exposed to sunlight, such as the soles of the feet or the groin. Melanoma is also
more likely to travel to distant organs. Metastatic melanoma is more likely to
be found in the brain, bones, liver or lungs.
more about skin cancer
Melanoma is the fifth most common form of cancer in the United States, with more than 91,270 new cases diagnosed each year. Melanoma accounts for about 1 percent of the skin cancer cases diagnosed each year, but it is responsible for most skin cancer deaths. While the risk of melanoma increases with age, it also occurs in younger people and is among the more common cancers in young adults.