Risk factors for stomach cancer

This page was reviewed under our medical and editorial policy by

Maurie Markman, MD, President, Medicine & Science

This page was updated on May 23, 2022.

The risk of developing stomach cancer increases with age. People a family history of cancers may also be at higher risk. Common stomach cancer risk factors include:


Age: Stomach cancer is found most often in people over age 55.

Gender: The disease affects men twice as often as women.

Race: Stomach cancer is more common in African Americans than in Caucasians.

Region: This type of cancer is more common in some parts of the world, such as Japan, Korea, parts of Eastern Europe and Latin America. People in these areas eat many foods that are preserved by drying, smoking, salting or pickling.


BRCA1 & BRCA2: Inherited mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are often associated with higher risks for breast cancer. Individuals who have inherited these genetic mutations are also at an increased risk for stomach cancer.

E-cadherin/CDH1: Though rare, people who inherit this genetic mutation have a 70 to 80 percent chance of developing stomach cancer in their lifetime. Also, women with this genetic defect have an increased risk of breast cancer.

Lynch syndrome: This condition may also be referred to as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), a genetic condition that runs in families. More commonly, this condition is associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. HNPCC also predisposes people to stomach cancers.

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): This syndrome causes polyps in the colon, stomach and intestines. Often caused by mutations of the gene APC, this syndrome greatly increases a person's risk of colorectal cancer and may play a small role in increasing a person's stomach cancer risk.

Learn more about genetic testing


Smoking: Some evidence has linked cigarette smoking to many types of cancer, including stomach cancer. Smokers are at greater risk of developing cancer than non-smokers.

Diet: Scientists believe that eating processed foods may play a role in the development of stomach cancer. On the other hand, fresh foods (especially fresh fruits and vegetables and properly frozen or refrigerated fresh foods) may protect against this disease.

Obesity: Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of stomach cancer.

Working in the coal, metal or rubber industries: Chemicals that are released in these environments have been linked to the development of stomach cancer.

Other conditions

H. pylori infection: Doctors have found that a long-term H. pylori infection may lead to inflammation and pre-cancerous changes to the stomach lining. In fact, stomach cancer patients typically have a higher incidence of H. pylori infections than people who do not have stomach cancer.

Pernicious anemia: Some people with pernicious anemia may have gastric polyps, which can increase the risk of stomach cancer.

Epstein-Barr virus infection: According to the American Cancer Society, Epstein-Barr virus is found in the cancer cells of about 5 percent to 10 percent of people with stomach cancer.

Next topic: What are the symptoms of stomach cancer?

Expert cancer care

is one call away.
appointments in as little as 24 hrs.