Endometrial cancer is the most common form of uterine cancer. Because the endometrium is part of the uterus, endometrial cancer is often referred to as uterine cancer. Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer (which includes cancers of the uterus, cervix, ovaries, vulva, vagina and fallopian tubes).
Endometrial cancer forms when cells in the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) begin to grow out of control. This cancer type is divided into various subtypes based on how the cells look under a microscope:
- Endometroid adenocarcinoma, which accounts for most cases of endometrial cancer
- Serous adenocarcinoma, which are tumors that are more likely to spread to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body
- Adenosquamous carcinoma, a rare uterine cancer that is similar to adenocarcinoma and carcinoma of the squamous cells that line the outer layer of the uterus
- Uterine carcinosarcoma, which has cancer cells that look like endometrial cancer and sarcoma and has a high risk of spreading to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body