Local excision and polypectomy
If colorectal cancer is found at an early stage, your doctor may be able to remove it, through a colonoscope, with a local excision that does not require cutting through the abdomen. If the excision involves the removal of a polyp, the procedure is called a polypectomy. The removal of a stage I or stage II colorectal cancer with a colonoscope is called endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Your doctor may perform a polypectomy or EMR if polyps are found during a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy.
During these procedures, a doctor accesses the colon or rectum through the anus with a colonoscope and an attached cutting tool or snare used to remove the polyps or abnormal cells. If a polyp or area of abnormal cells cannot be removed during these procedures, laparoscopic or open surgery may be required.