Prostate Cancer States / Staging
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Video: Gleason GradingLearn about Gleason grading, including what the scores of this prostate cancer test mean.
Learn about Gleason grading, including what the scores of this prostate cancer test mean.
If you undergo a prostate cancer biopsy, your CTCA doctor will examine the tissues to learn more about the cancer cells. Some cancers may be more aggressive than others, and this information plays an important role in decisions about your treatment.
Your doctor will assign a Gleason score to the disease based upon its microscopic appearance. Cancer with a higher Gleason score is more aggressive.
- Grade 1 – The cancerous prostate closely resembles normal prostate tissues. The glands are small, well-formed and closely packed.
- Grade 2 – The tissue still has well-formed glands, but they are larger and have more tissue between them.
- Grade 3 – The tissue still has recognizable glands, but the cells are darker. At high magnification, some of the cells have left the glands and are beginning to invade surrounding tissue.
- Grade 4 – The tissue has few recognizable glands. Many cells are invading the surrounding tissue.
- Grade 5 – The tissue does not have recognizable glands. There are often just sheets of cells throughout the surrounding tissue.
Together with other diagnostic tests, the Gleason score is incorporated into a strategy of prostate cancer staging, which helps guide therapy.
Prostate Cancer Staging
Prostate cancer stages are clearly identifiable. At CTCA, your doctor will examine the cancer tissues to determine the stage of the disease.
- Stage I: Cancer is confined to the prostate. It can’t be detected during a DRE. It is usually expected to be slow growing.
- Stage II: Cancer can be detected during a DRE. It’s still confined to the prostate, but the cells may be more abnormal and may grow faster.
- Stage III: Cancer is in tissues near the prostate. It also may have reached the seminal vesicles.
- Stage IV: Cancer has invaded other parts of the body, such as the rectum, nearby lymph nodes or bone.
- Recurrent: Cancer has returned after treatment. It may recur in the prostate area or in other places, such as the bones.
Your care team at CTCA thoroughly reviews your Gleason score and the prostate cancer stage, along with your medical history, family history, PSA score and other factors to develop a customized prostate cancer treatment plan for you.
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